The Spanish Language
Spanish is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of modern italic languages (neolatine languages). The standard Spanish corresponds to Castilian, which is the main dialect of this language. It was a language which for a long time was only one of the neo-Latin idioms spoken in the Iberian peninsula, and became the dominant language of Spain when that country had no other capital but Madrid.
If we go back even farther, it does not appear that the Iberian Peninsula, prior to the Roman conquest, possessed a single language. A writer of the eighth century, Luitprand, speaks of ten idioms still spoken at the time of the Emperor Augustus. He quotes only the Cantabrian, the Celtiberian, and the ancient Spanish; But it can not be said whether the Cantabrian is reproduced without much alteration in Basque, and if, under the name of ancient Spanish, we mean the turditain, the bastule, or any other dialect. The Phoenician and his Carthaginian variant had to influence more or less the primitive idioms of Spain; But as a result of the Roman conquest, the very division of these idioms, which had neither the strength of a social bond nor the interest of a literature, favored the progress of Latin, which soon Supplanting. However, they did not disappear altogether from the native population, since, on certain medals of the Roman Empire, we find the bastule used concurrently with Latin.The Spanish Language
The Sueves, the Alans, the Vandals, and the Visigoths, by invading Spain at the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era, brought with them their Germanic languages: the first three peoples were soon effaced; The more inclined to adopt the manners and language of the vanquished than to impose their own, Latin, despite the introduction of some Teutonic elements, remained the dominant language of the country. The Arabs exercised a much greater influence: on their arrival, in the eighth century, they already possessed a cultivated language and a literature full of the future. Arabic spread rapidly throughout all parts of Spain; In cities subject to Muslim domination, it was understood and spoken by the natives, and even in the Christian states, a multitude of medieval medals present legends, sometimes Latin and Arab, sometimes entirely Arab. This language, which received the name of romanzo, is one of the Romance or Neo-Latin languages. Like the other idioms of the same group, it was formed from Latin, which is its main background, and some Germanic elements; But its distinctive feature is the addition of an Arabic element. Spoken at first in several dialects, it became a national language only after the union of the various Christian
In general, the Castilian differs less from the Latin than Italian: most of his words present only a slight modification of Latin, according to laws very easy to grasp. For example, in radicals, e changes to ie (tiempo; temps; de tempus); O in eu (bueno, bonus, c in g seguro, securus); F in h (hacer, of facere, p in b sobre, of supero); T in d (vida, de vita); Cl, pl and fl in Il (llamar, do clamare, lleno, de plenus, llama, de flamina); Li in j and in g (hijo, of filius, mujer, de mulier). While the Italian rejected almost completely the final consonants of Latin, and that French, while preserving them in spelling, made them disappear in pronunciation, Spanish kept them better, in the conjugation Especially: words like fuimus, fuistis, fuerunt, he made fuimos, fuisteis, fueron. But, while leaving the Latin conjugation to a great extent, the German influence has led to the suppression of the passive voice, and in the declension, the use of prepositions instead of casual flexions.
One wonders then how it is defined today, the “standard Italian”, it is understood as the linguistic norm for communication. There are several definitions of standard Italian, Darden (2005), for example, calls it "a language that has been artificially leveled as a result of contacts with other varieties and to 'normalising action sets mainly from political power"; according Bonomi (2010), however, is defined as the language inherited from literary tradition, described in grammars and taught in schools and foreigners. "To conclude, we must not forget the fact - emphasised by scholars in the field - that the standard in speech is owned by a very limited number of speakers (about 1% of the population): actors of cinema and theatre, voice actors, radio and television announcers who have completed courses in diction, some teachers and professors particularly sensitive topic.
The development of the process of literary translation is not, in principle, different from that of other kinds of translation, such as scientific-technical, legal, biblical translation and other religious writings, etc. The problem is to establish quality criteria, criteria that allow us to qualify the right product. You can not judge a translation of good or bad, since they are subjective and global judgments that block the possibility of a detailed analysis. In addition, good and bad are extreme positions that resemble moral criteria that have nothing to do when we judge a product of intelligence and the human spirit. Successful or appropriate as some say, it is a relative value, as should be any valuation on a human realization, which a translator creates (by a work contract) to serve a reader who buys and uses this product. As Paul Valèry says, translating is producing different analogous effects.Spanish Translation
However, in order to objectively evaluate any literary translation, it is convenient to stick to the framework arising from a set of general principles or a technique that can be used as a guide for that study, as well as reference points for any evaluation.
These general principles, which I shall analyze later, have been applied to the study of a particular novel The Bell, by Iris Murdoch (London: Chatto and Windus, 1958) and the translation of it by Flora Casas: La campana , 1983). My theoretical exposition will be of a rather limited scope, since I do not pretend to speculate with the various theories of translation.