The Portuguese Language
Portuguese is one of the neolatine languages, the one perhaps which has preserved for the most part, if not for appearance, the most resemblance to the common mother. It comes almost entirely from Latin, to the point that scholars have been able to make long pieces of Latin verse with exclusively Portuguese words: but it is a Latin very seriously altered by the pronunciation of the ancient Lusitanians. This alteration consists principally in a system of contraction, which is doubtless due to the hardness of the idiom previously employed; Thus, the Portuguese are mortified for mayor, ma for mala, ceo for cielo, te for tiene, na for la, somente for solamente, etc. They replace the r by l, and say regra for regla, branda for blanda, branca pour blanca etc.
A second special character of the Portuguese language is the contracted nasal sound, by which the ultimate ion, derived from the Latin io, is rendered with a single voice broadcast. Thus, for mencion, they say menção; For resolucion, resolução; For Camoens, Camioes, & c. This contraction is indicated in the spelling (moreover, in conformity with the pronunciation) by a line drawn on the last two letters, and which is called til.The Portuguese Language
Portuguese has none of the guttural consonants found in the Castilian. The g guttural Castilian is replaced in Portuguese by lh wet: thus, to escoger (to choose), they say to escolher. The Wet of the Castilians is rendered in some cases by lh, in others by ch: instead of llegar (arrive), they say chegar; Instead of hallar, they say achar, & c. This absence of guttural sounds makes the Portuguese more sweet to the ear than the Castilian; It holds, in terms of harmony, the middle between the Castilian and the Italian. He has retained the energetic conciseness of Latin, and remains a tongue at once rich, noble, and graceful, which possesses the amiable familiarity of the Castilian, without admitting the tones sometimes more free. The richness of Portuguese is such that a fruitful author, Frey Luis de Souza, does not use a single word borrowed from a foreign language.
Portuguese also owes to the German conquerors some terms of Teutonic origin, such as bosque, jardim, camisa, alvergar, esgrimir, etc. André de Resende (De Antiquaritus Lusitaniae) collected 500 words of Greek origin. It is estimated that Portuguese contains about one third fewer Arabic words than Castilian.
Portuguese grammar, like that of the other neolatine languages, possesses the auxiliaries and the article; But, by a phenomenon peculiar to it, it supplements, in certain cases, the auxiliary of the passive by the pronouns. Personal, me, te, and so on. : In Latin appellor, appellaris, in Portuguese chamo me, chamas te; Moveor, movo me; Vestior, visto me, etc. Portuguese has superlatives: bonissimo, christianissimo. It also has many derivatives: 15 are formed from the single word pedra, where Latin has only 6. Portuguese conjugation has this peculiarity that it applies flexion to its very infinitive, to distinguish the person Grammatical to which belongs the author of the act expressed by the verb.
Lambert (1941) has always shown a taste for the world of letters. From childhood he was passionate about reading, despite living in a 20 km south of Bruges, Belgium, where The books were difficult to access. The family's efforts José Lambert was the first of the children to attend the Unversity. In 1959, he began a Masters in Arts and later Started to dedicate himself to Comparative Literature by writing a thesis Entitled Ludwig Tieck dans les lettres françaises: Aspects d'une Résistance au romantisme allemand (Études de littérature étrangère Et comparée). From Comparative Literature to the Translation, and these two fields served as the basis for many His reflections, some of them present in this bookPortuguese Translation
José Lambert is a retired professor and researcher at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. He presided over several International associations, is the author of a vast theoretical and Criticism, embodied in books and articles published in various Countries and languages. He is co-founder, with Gideon Toury, and Honor of one of the most important research centers in Translation Studies: CETRA, at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Who completed 20 years in August 2009. CETRA was created To promote translation studies at a high level. José Lambert Is also one of the founders and editors of Target, the main Journal of the Translation Studies area. In addition, it was one of the Founders of Translation Studies and developed, Together with Gideon Toury, Holmes and Raymond van den Broeck Descriptive Studies of Translation. He was a visiting professor of several Foreign universities and, in 2009, was a Researcher Visitor of CNPq in Post-Graduate Studies in Translation Studies Federal University of Santa Catarina
The twelve texts selected in this book, written between 1975 and 2000, present the intellectual profile and reflections of a scholar Literature and translation, through a Descriptive. This element was what motivated, in part, the Choice of trials. In fact, the writings of Lambert Very precise characteristics of the test, since it presents a Personal, autonomous and original way of exposing ideas, without the use of Of the usual academic jargon.
The article "In Search of World Maps of Literatures", published In 1990, discusses how literatures are studied. According to Lambert, there are two problematic aspects Studies: the normative question, but mainly Eurocentrism Of literary research, which is based on literary histories, That there is a need for more limited sources of information, Because of the way they are constructed they can not explain the Literary phenomenon as a whole, since they deal basically with National literatures.